Canons & Fugues Well-Tempered Clavier

Well-Tempered Clavier:
Index of Contrapuntal Operations,
Learning Objects, and Concepts

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Contrapuntal Operations


Book I
No. 1: C
No. 2: cm
No. 3: C#
No. 4: c#m
No. 5: D
No. 6: dm
No. 7: Eb
No. 8: d#/ebm
No. 9: E
No. 10: em
No. 11: F
No. 12: fm
No. 13: F#
No. 14: f#m
No. 15: G
No. 16: gm (a)
No. 17: Ab
No. 18: g#m
No. 19: A
No. 20: am
No. 21: Bb
No. 22: bbm
No. 23: B
No. 24: bm



Book II
No. 1: C
No. 2: cm
No. 3: C#
No. 4: c#m
No. 5: D
No. 6: dm
No. 7: Eb
No. 8: d#m
No. 9: E
No. 11: F
No. 12: fm
No. 13: F#
No. 14: f#m
No. 15: G
No. 16: gm
No. 17: Ab
No. 18: g#m
No. 19: A
No. 20: am
No. 21: Bb
No. 22: bbm
No. 23: B
No. 24: bm

     Style
verset
demonst.
moderno
passion
demonst.
dance
antico
ricercar
moderno
canon
dance
verset
moderno
antico
concerto
verset
verset
verset
verset
competit.
character
antico
verset?
passion



Style
character
verset
verset
dance
verset
improv.
ricercar
canzona
antico
partimento
dance
galant
passion
partimento
moderno
verset
verset
chorale
fughetta
dance
moderno
moderno
dance

 Voices
4
3
3
5
4
3
3
3
3
2
3
4
3
4
3
3
4
4
3
4
3
5
4
4



 Voices
3
4
3
3
4
3
4
4
4
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
3
3
3
3
4
4
3
  Subject
  Entries

24
8
12
31
11
17
9
36
10
9
13
10
8
9
14
17
15
12
14
38
8
22
12
13


  Subject
  Entries

8
23
45
15
25
9
11
16
38
7
9
11
30
6
17
15
12
10
8
11
24
14
9
 Tonal/
 Real

either
tonal
tonal
real
tonal
real
tonal
tonal
real
real
tonal
tonal
tonal
real
real
tonal
tonal
tonal
tonal
real
tonal
tonal
tonal
tonal


 Tonal/
 Real

tonal
tonal
tonal
real
either
real
tonal
real
either
tonal
tonal
real
tonal
tonal
tonal
tonal
real
real
tonal
tonal
real
tonal
tonal

    Stretti
extreme
-
-
moderate
moderate
moderate
-
extreme
-
-
moderate
-
-
-
moderate
moderate
-
-
moderate
extreme
-
extreme
moderate
-



    Stretti
-
extreme
extreme
-
extreme
moderate
moderate
slight
extreme
-
-
-
-
-
moderate
slight
-
-
-
-
extreme
-
-
 Counter
 Subject

-
6
11
-
-
5
7
-
9
10
4
8
11
7
-
12
-
7
-
-
7
-
5
11


 Counter
 Subject

6
-
14
-
-
4
-
7
13
-
-
9
-
5
15
11
3
-
7
7
9
5
4
 2nd
 Ctr

-
*
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
*
-
-
-
-
-
*
-
-
*
-
-
-


 2nd
 Ctr

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
*
-
*
-
-
-
-
-
*
*
*
*
 Mel
 Inv

-
*
*
*
-
*
-
*
-
-
*
-
*
*
*
-
-
-
-
*
*
-
*
*


 Mel
 Inv

-
*
*
*
-
*
-
*
*
-
-
-
*
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
*
-
-
 Inv
 Ctpt

-
*
*
*
-
*
*
-
-
*
-
*
*
*
-
*
-
*
*
-
*
-
*
*


 Inv
 Ctpt

*
-
-
*
-
-
*
*
*
-
-
*
*
*
10/12
12
*
-
*
10/12
*
12
*

 Aug
-
-
-
-
*
-
-
*
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-



 Aug
-
*
*
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
*
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
 Double
 Triple

-
-
-
Triple
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Double
-
-
-
-
-


 Double
 Triple

-
-
-
Double
-
-
-
-
Triple
-
-
-
Triple
-
-
-
Double
-
-
-
-
Double
-

 BACH
-
-
-
*
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
*
-
-
-
*
-
*



 BACH
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
*
-
*
-
-
-
-
*

 Crown
-
-
-
*
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
*
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-



 Crown
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
*
-
-
-
-
*
-
-
-
*
*
-
-
-
-
*




Learning Objects and Concepts

Book I
No. 1: C
Flash
Shockwave
Prelude: streaming audio link
Topics: stretto and expositional architecture (tonal/real)
Key concepts: Prelude and fugue thematically linked; stretto, subject, answer, false subject defined; subject accompanies itself and inherently develops in certain ways.
Interpretation: Korevaar performance notes
Questionnaire: Students can answer ten questions online.
Translations: Português, Español
No. 2: cm
Flash
Shockwave
Topics: figural structure of subject, countersubject, invertible counterpoint, melodic inversion, sequence, palindrome
Key concepts: Subject represents an economy of means; two countersubjects require triple counterpoint; sequence likened to stairs, functions to connect related keys.
Interpretation: Korevaar performance notes
Questionnaire: Students can answer ten questions online.
Translations: Português, Español
No. 3: C#
Flash
Shockwave
Topics: structure of subject, countersubject, melodic
inversion, sequence, enharmonicism, well-tempered, re-exposition
Key concepts: Disjunct subject outlines compound melody; countersubject melodically inverted; sequence likened to engine; enharmonics justified; well-tempered intonation defined; exposition repeated at conclusion of fugue; similarity of fugue to Italian concerto grosso.
Interpretation: Korevaar performance notes
Questionnaire: Students can answer ten questions (or these alternate ten) online.
Translations: Português, Español 
No. 4: c#m
Flash
Shockwave
Topics: Lutheranism, chiasmus, lamento, triple fugue, Bach symbols, retrogradation, melodic inversion, passion music
Key concepts: Shortest subject in WTC is chiastic; triple fugue is passion music with which artist identified by authorial inclusion; BACH motive/numbers/monogram
Interpretation: Korevaar performance notes
Questionnaire: Students can answer ten questions online.
Translations: Português, Español
No. 5: D
Flash
Shockwave
Topics: structure of subject, French manier
Key concepts: Subject contains two motives, one of which is developed by augmentation; influence of French music; performance practice of dotted rhythms
Interpretation: Korevaar performance notes
Questionnaire: Students can answer ten questions online.
Translations: Português, Español
No. 6: dm
Flash
Shockwave
Topics: structure of subject/countersubject, melodic inversion,
rounded binary, Fortspinnung
Key concepts: Subject fragmented into three motives and undergoes inversion for 1st time in WTC; countersubject motivically related to subject; fugue likened to big bang; form is rounded binary
Interpretation: Korevaar performance notes
Questionnaire: Students can answer ten questions online.
Translations: Português, Español
No. 7: Eb
Flash
Shockwave
Prelude: streaming audio link
Topics: modulating subject, bridge passage, ritornello
Key concepts: Prelude is a double fugue; following fugue has unusual tonal relationship between subject and answer; bridge passage receives extraordinary development; ritornello principle is likened to boomerang.
Questionnaire: Students can answer ten questions online.
Translations: Português, Español
No. 8: d#/ebm
Flash
Shockwave
Topics: inversion, augmentation, Dostoevsky Brothers K.
Key concepts: Classic example of subject inversion and augmentation; fugue like polyphonic novel, Brothers Karamazov.
Interpretation: Korevaar performance notes
Questionnaire: Students can answer ten questions online.
Translations: Português, Español
No. 9: E
Flash
Shockwave
Topics: structure of subject/countersubject, melodic inversion, retrogradation, augmentation, DNA
Key concepts: Motives in subject/countersubject analyzed at figural level; unusual variation of countersubject; atomized figures undergo inversion, retrogradation, augmentation; generative tendency of fugue likened to DNA.
Questionnaire: Students can answer ten questions online.
Translations: Português, Español
No. 10: em
Flash
Shockwave
Topics: counterfugue, double counterpoint, canon, Möbius
Key concepts: Only two-voiced fugue is canon comprised of two parts (fugue/counterfugue) in double counterpoint; fugue likened to Möbius strip.
Questionnaire: Students can answer ten questions (or these alternate ten) online.
Translations: Português, Español
No. 11: F
Flash
Shockwave
Topics: structure of subject, counterexposition, canon, melodic inversion
Key concepts: Subject fragmented into three motives; counterexposition and developments repeat structures in new voice order; canonic episodes; fugue like building blocks.
Questionnaire: Students can answer ten questions online.
Translations: Português, Español
No. 12: fm
Flash
Shockwave
Topics: countersubject, chromaticism, wohltemperirt, triple counterpoint
Key concepts: Second most chromatic subject in Book I provides occasion to reference wohltemperirt, Werckmeister, Kircher, and Kirnberger.
Questionnaire: Students can answer ten questions online.
Translation: Español
No. 13: F#
Flash
Shockwave
Topics: invention, false sequence
Key concepts: Episodes develop material not derived from the subject; like a fugue with three-part invention.
Interpretation: Korevaar performance notes.
Questionnaire: Students can answer ten questions online.
Translation: Español
No. 14: f#m
Flash
Shockwave
Topics: countersubject, stile antico, chromaticism, melodic inversion
Key concepts: Chromatic subject is complemented by sighing countersubject in the inverse of the subject's arched shape; fugue is an amalgam of opposites, stile antico with moderno; discussion weaves themes from O'Brien on James Joyce, and Ciardi.
Questionnaire: Students can answer ten questions online.
Translation: Español
No. 15: G
Flash
Shockwave
Topics: structure of subject, scale, proportionality
Key concepts: Rhythmic symmetry of the subject; scalar material developed by economical means; fugue likened to Palladio villa with ensuing discussion of geometric and harmonic means, Zarlino, and "music of the spheres."
Questionnaire: Students can answer ten questions online.
Translation: Español
No. 16: gm (a)
Flash
Shockwave
Topics: structure of subject/countersubject, melodic inversion, double counterpoint
Key concepts: Countersubject is derived from the subject by melodic inversion and reordering of head/tail; fugue likened to fractal.
Questionnaire: Students can answer ten questions online.
Translation: Español
No. 16: gm (b) Topics: Paul Celan, Imre Kertész, the Holocaust, Bach's funeral music
Key concepts: fugal purpose, character, and essence.  It is the fugue's essence to reveal the likeness of seemingly unlike things. This alternate study of the gm fugue, asks why Paul Celan titled his poem on the Holocaust a "fugue" (Todesfuge). It compares Celan's work with the axial fugue of BWV 106, which uses the same subject as the gm fugue of WTC Book I. An analogue is suggested of the Jewish- Christian experience, with lessons of the fugue and Holocaust applied to contemporary life. Features the paintings and poetry of Holocaust survivor, Tamara Deuel.
No. 17: Ab
Flash
Shockwave
Topics: Heinrich Schenker, prolongation, fundamental structure
Key concepts: Schenkerian analysis briefly explained and applied to fugue.
Questionnaire: Students can answer ten questions online.
Translation: Español
No. 18: g#m
Flash
Shockwave
Topics: structure of subject, tritone, modulation, harmonic cycle, wohltemperirt, tonal functions
Key concepts: Subject's head exposes a melodic tritone above tonic, modulation to dominant results; subject's tail implies tritone between predominant and dominant; tonic- predominant-dominant-tonic cycle explained and related to the Canon super Fa Mi (BWV 1078); explanation of well-tempered intonation; includes Index of Harmonic Variations
Questionnaire: Students can answer ten questions online.
Translation: Español
No. 19: A
Flash
Shockwave
Topics: double fugue, imbrications of motive, Dante, Milton
Key concepts: Double fugue's disjunct subject developed by imbrications of motives; stepwise 2nd subject flies; etymology of fugue considered in Divine Comedy and Paradise Lost.
Questionnaire: Students can answer ten questions online.
Translation: Español
No. 20: am
Flash
Shockwave
Topics: melodic inversion, stretto, canon, counterexposition, design, Gerhardt Niedt, Lutheranism, Bach symbols, S.D.G. and J.N.J.
Key concepts: Longest fugue in WTC I has the most iterations of subject, half inverted; symbolism of 14 canonic stretti; fugue compared to kinetic sculpture; theological implications of purposefulness and design; Soli Deo Gloria after WTC I.
Questionnaire: Students can answer ten questions online.
Translation: Español
No. 21: Bb
Flash
Shockwave
Topics: permutation fugue, countersubject, pattern & metapattern
Key concepts: Contrapuntal texture with two countersubjects inverted in a pattern with one anomaly; rotation of polyphonic voices; fugue likened to Amish quilt, poetry, and folk art.
Interpretation: Korevaar performance notes included.
Questionnaire: Students can answer ten questions online.
Translation: Español
No. 22: bbm
Flash
Shockwave
Prelude: streaming audio link
Topics: hyperstretto, stile antico counterpoint, Fux
Key concepts: Second of two fugues for five voices in the stile antico; counterpoint likened to choreography by Balanchine; Fux Gradus; dramatic leap (9th), largest of any subject; 2nd of three instance of the BACH motive in WTC Book I.  Theories about the affective connotation of b-flat minor.
Questionnaire: Students can answer ten questions online.
Translation: Español
No. 23: B
Flash
Shockwave
Topics: melodic inversion, tonal and modal variation, invertible counterpoint, Affekt, Monet
Key concepts: Fugue is like Monet series paintings of poplars; techniques that unite composition and painting. Questionnaire: Students can answer ten questions online.
Translation: Español
No. 24: bm
Flash
Shockwave
Prelude: streaming audio link
Topics: chromaticism, Lutheranism, chiasmus, Cranach, passion music
Key concepts: Most chromatic of subjects in WTC employs twelve tones; outlines three crosses; 25 iterations of BACH motive; intertextual associations of passion music with Weimar painting by Lucas Cranach the Elder; motivic connotations of prelude.
Questionnaire: Students can answer ten questions online.
Translations: Português, Español

 

Book II Contents

No. 1: C

Topics: structure of subject/countersubject, sequence, Voyager spacecraft, Carl Sagan
Key concepts: subject has two parts each of which can accompany the other; countersubject continues motives of the subject's tail; ramifications of fugue's inclusion on Voyager's "golden record"; fugue as the product of design (as opposed to Sagan's evolutionary analogue)

No. 2: cm Topics: structure of subject, stretto, augmentation, melodic inversion, retrogradation
Key concepts: Second half of subject retrogrades contour of first half; improvisatory character of fugue likened to migrating geese.
Translation: 中文, (Mandarin)

No. 3: C#

Topics: Hofstadter's Gödel Escher Bach, Polanyi
Key concepts: Subject appears in contrary motion, augmentation, and diminution; fugue is used to illustrate Gödel's incompleteness theorem; extensive discussion of Gödel, Turing, and Polanyi; fugue subjected to Turing test and undecidable proposition discovered.

No. 4: c#m

Topics: Metalanguage, Metacognition, Metaphor, and Metamorphosis
Key concepts:
Exploration of an interpretive framework, essentially a linguistic methodology, for revealing relationships between unlike things: a butterfly, a fugue, and the novel Pale Fire by Vladimir Nabokov.  The author concludes that all three address the problem of mortality, with the novel and fugue employing a self-reflexive technique to view the "one" from the perspective of the the "other."
Questionnaire: Students can answer ten questions online.

No. 5: D Topics: Stockhausen, Adorno, Cage, universals, nominalism
Key concepts: Subject borrows rhythm and melody from canzona; "naturally" lends itself to stretto; tail motive consumes 3/4 of fugue; plagal exposition; perception of exposition in the "right" key; tonal "perspective"; Bach's music realistic vs. nominalistic; modern commitment to nominalism exemplified in Cage and Adorno; conclusion of nominalism in Stockhausen and World Trade Center tragedy.
No. 6: dm Topics: rhetoric, word painting
Key concepts: Bach's conception of fugue as rhetoric; fugal invention; Aristotle's topoi, Mattheson's loci topici; exposition equivalent to thesis; development involves antithesis; connotations of specific word paintings including the lamento; Affekt and the relationship of (Prout's) words to music.
Questionnaire: Students can answer ten questions online.
No. 7: Eb Topics: Nietzsche, Wagner, philosophy, nihilism, St. Matthew Passion
Key concepts: Mendelssohn's revival of the St. Matthew Passion stimulates interest in Bach's music; Schumann and the Bach Gesellschaft; 19th century reception of Bach as "healing force"; compared with Wagner; Nietzsche's nihilism, friendship with Wagner, and 1878 criticism of Bach in Aphorism 149, Human, All-Too-Human.
Questionnaire: Students can answer ten questions online.
No. 8: d#m Topics: Scheibe, Mattheson, rhetoric, word painting
Key concepts: Scheibe's criticism of Bach's music and Mattheson's challenge; Bach responds by demonstrating mastery of musical rhetorical techniques: gradation, paronomasia, peroration, tmesis, and antithesis; implications of canzona rhythm, suspiratio, and chiastic motives as word paintings; discussion of rhetorical "meaning"; fugue compared with BWV 4.
No. 9: E Topics: wave theory, quantum mechanics
Key concept: fugue is like a wave Fugue has three subjects plus a countersubject; counterexposition treats subject and countersubject separately, in stretto; perceptual challenge of this type of fugue to maintain distinction between motives; fugue likened to waves of all kinds: ocean, sound, light, electromagnetic; review of quantum physics from Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg; Bohr contra Einstein debates; contemporary revolution in physics; Carver Mead's Collective Electrodynamics; fugue as evidentiary of design; the "Uncreated Wave"
No. 10: em Not yet available
No. 11: F Topics: Kenneth L. Pike, linguistics, tagmemics
Key concept: The fugue contains elements of a wave, particle, and field.  Meaning "happens" when people interact with other people and objects in their environment.  In the fugue (an object), meaning is found in the perception of relationships between its "units in context," what the linguist Kenneth Pike called a tagmeme.  In Pike's conception, these relationships involve qualities of slot, class, role, and cohesion.  In the fugue, these qualities are expressed in the subject's distribution, pitch-class content, scale-degree function within a key, and tonality as cohesive force.  Additionally, slot, class, role, and cohesion can be mapped, as a group, onto properties of contrast, variation, and distribution, producing what Pike called a tagmemic grid.  The tonal grid comprises then the fugue's tonal tagmeme, which interacts with its similarly structured motivic tagmeme and referential tagmeme, these latter receiving mention without substantive discussion. 
No. 12: fm Topic: reconstruction of Bach's likeness by forensic anthropologists at the University of Dundee, Scotland
Key concept: surreal comparison of fugal composition and analysis to forensic reconstruction, with analogies to Lamarckian Darwinism. Critique of scientific methods vs. humanistic ways of understanding what is "authentic" and "real."
Questionnaire: Students can answer ten questions online.
No. 13: F# Topics: time, tempo, perception of time, definition of time
Key concepts: Fugal time is neither circular nor linear, but epochal and spiraled. Meaning in the fugue is dependent upon relationships between the past, present, and future. The intensity of conscious cognitive processing required in listening to a fugue protracts (and compresses) the passage of time: the fugal future is in its past, and its past is in its future.
No. 14: f#m Topics: Lutheranism, chiasmus, lamento (Passus duriusculus), triple fugue, Bach symbols, melodic inversion, passion music
Key concepts: definitive triple fugue of the cycle; two of its subjects borrowed from earlier works in the WTC; each subject receives its own exposition, followed by development with subjects prior to it; third of three "passion fugues" contains many symbols, both of the composer and his faith.
Translation: Português
No. 15: G Topics: absolute expressionism, modern art, Kandinsky, Schoenberg
Key concepts: Kandinsky's 1914 painting, Fuga, provides occasion to explore the aesthetic ideal of expressionism and the historical roots of modern art, both in reaction to impressionism and as a continuation of the western aesthetic. Bach's legacy to Schoenberg and Kandinsky can be found in the principle of affect coupled with motivic development and economy of means. The spiritual quest of each artist also finds "expression" in his unique style and medium.
No. 16: gm Topics: Grand Canyon, geology, double counterpoint
Key concepts: The fugue's subject and countersubject are heard in its various "voices." This analysis is primarily concerned with how the composer notates fugal voices so that they can be aurally and visually distinguished from each other. Analogy is made to the sedimentary layers of Grand Canyon, Arizona, with many allusions to its geology and history. This particular fugue is famous for its double counterpoint at the octave, 10th, and 12th--structures that are illustrated and explained.
Questionnaire: Students can answer ten questions online.
No. 17: Ab Topics: Salmon migration, ecosystems, counterpoint, potentiality vs. actuality
Key concepts: Counterpoint involves an interdependence of musical ideas that is likened to the relationship of species within ecosystems.  With this fugue, in particular, the sprightly subject seems to be intuitively at odds with the somber countersubject (a lament).  The purpose of the analysis is to show how one does not generate the other, but how they both emanate, harmonious and on equal footing, from a more fundamental thought.
Questionnaire: Students can answer ten questions online.
No. 18: g#m Topics: Bach's Bible, Calov, Frederick the Great, Musical Offering, Enlightenment
Key concept: Bach's commitment to the preaching purpose of music. The narrative begins with Bach in the Weimar jail, by some counts beginning his composition of the Well-Tempered Clavier, and ends with his 1747 encounter with Frederick the Great. The discussion is threaded with references to Bach's many underlinings and annotations in the Calov Bible. His Lutheran understanding of music's purpose is contrasted with the galant style preferred by Frederick, as well as the philosophical assumptions of Aufklärung and what would come to be known as the Enlightenment.
No. 19: A Topics: Architecture, Christopher Alexander, Milton Babbitt
Key concepts: Art = beauty, beauty = life, life = relationships. This aesthetic philosophy, articulated by Berkeley professor of architecture in The Nature of Order, is applied to the fugue and contrasted with Milton Babbitt's article, "Who Cares if You Listen?"
No. 20: am Topics: Humor in music, self-similar structures, matryoshka doll
Key concepts: Dr. Ledbetter offers three reasons why this fugue should be interpreted as parody. Nevertheless, there are some serious ideas here, mainly in the self-similar contours and rhythms of the subject's head and tail. The fugue likened to a Russian "babushka" doll.
No. 21: Bb Topics: Invariance, Permutation, Syllogism, Plato and Meno's Square
Key concepts: The brilliance of Bach's fugues lies in his understanding of process and invention. Unlike "book fugues" that mimic form, Bach understood that the fugal complex must have the capacity to generate new material from old. In this fugue Bach interrupted a process of permutation. The analysis asks why, concluding with analogies from astronomy, philosophy, and the words of C. S. Lewis
No. 22: bbm Topics: Schweitzer, Sartre, Nietzsche
Key concepts: This fugue, the most logocentric of the cycle, provides an opportunity to compare theistic and atheistic existentialism, as exemplified in the writings of Bach biographer/editor/performer, Albert Schweitzer, and his cousin, Jean-Paul Sartre. Thematically, the analysis focuses on the Stoic concept of logos and its etymological derivatives. The logos of Bach's counterpoint demands recognition as purposeful and meaningful, not merely a display of contrapuntal process.
Questionnaire:
Students can answer ten questions online.
No. 23: B Topics: Triads, Tonality, Trinitarianism
Key concepts: Bach's music is the way it is because other things are the way they are. The power of Bach's music is proportional to the power of those other things. This fugue gives opportunity to consider how Trinitarian dogma has shaped musical structure. There is a brief discussion of the changing attitudes toward musical meaning and purpose during Bach's lifetime. This is contextualized in the dispute between Buttstett (representing the cantoral tradition) and Mattheson (representing the Enlightenment view).
No. 24: bm

Topics: Dance, Relationship of the bm fugues
Key concepts: This fugue is a dance, a passepied. The analysis considers Bach's use of the passepied in BWV 22, BWV 49, and BWV 202, the "Wedding" Cantata, and concludes that, in his liturgical music, Bach associated the passepied with the Wedding Supper of the Lamb. Associations between the bm fugues of Books 1 & 2 are developed with the conclusion that the former represents the cross and the latter the crown. The pair are theorized to be Bach's musical expression of Hebrews 12:2 -- "Who for the joy set before him" [book 2] "endured the cross" [book 1]. The last 14 measures contain the WTC's only instance of Bach's cross and crown motives (descending and ascending chromatics) in simultaneity. This follows Bach's 2nd quotation of the gefangen ("captured") motive from the St. Matthew Passion: counterpoint that he had earlier quoted in the bm prelude and fugue of Book 1.

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