Annotated Bibliography: New Mexico Pueblos

Sharon Mandigo, December 16, 2002

Eggan, F. and T.N. Pandey

1979  Zuni History, 1850-1970. In Southwest, edited by Alfonso Ortiz, pp. 474-481. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol.11, W.C. Sturtevant, general editor, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C.

Eggan, Fred

1979  Pueblos: Introduction.  In Southwest, edited by Alfonso Ortiz.  Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 9, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C.

            This chapter of the encyclopedia gives an introduction to the Pueblo Indians.  It briefly discusses their settlements, agriculture, and economy.  It lists the various reservations in New Mexico (17 in all).  It discusses Pueblo culture and history -- once again agriculture and trade, Spanish and American influences on the Pueblo and more recent events (since 1850).  It briefly lists variations among the reservations.  Although for the most part unified, there are variations based on ecology, language and social institutions.  There are variations in location – western (mesa and canyon land) pueblos and eastern (Rio Grande) Pueblos.  There is also a difference in linguistics.  There are four different and distinct mother tongues.  There are also divisions according to social organization (regarding kivas, kachina cults, and lineages) that span across language divisions.  It goes on to discuss ceremonial and political organization, prehistory and the Pueblos’ world view and future. There are other chapters after this that go into greater depth and detail about the various groups of Pueblo Indians.  The chapter “Pueblos abandoned in Historic Times” by Albert H. Schroeder gives a summary of the “names, locations and cultural traits of Pueblos reported by the Spanish expeditions of the 1500s and some additional sources for the 1600s.”  The other chapters go into greater depth on specific groups of Pueblo Indians.  They are:  Taos Pueblo, Santa Clara Pueblo, San Ildefonso Pueblo, Nambe Pueblo, Pojoaque Pueblo, Tesuque Pueblo, Tigua Pueblo, Sandia Pueblo, Isleta Pueblo, Chochiti Pueblo, Santo Domingo Pueblo, San Felipe Pueblo, Santa Ana Pueblo, Zia Pueblo, Jemez Pueblo, Pecos Pueblo, Laguna Pueblo and Acoma Pueblo – each chapter with its own author.

Schaafsma, Polly and David Muench.

1995  Images in StoneBrown Trout Publishers, Inc., San Francisco.

            In Images in Stone, Schaafsma uses several different examples of Pueblo beliefs as a means to explore rock art – to attempt to clarify what the images are portraying.  Kokopeli for example are symbols of fertility, images dealing with warmth moisture, rain, seeds, abundance and well-being.  The mountain lion, bear, wolf, eagle, badger and mole all have special directional significance and/or special curing capabilities.  In today’s Pueblo society, the horned serpent is in charge of all underground water sources and is able to cause earthquakes or flooding if he is displeased with human activities.  Shield and shield bearer images often had celestial images, like the sun, stars or eagles, on or near them. She also explains about kachinas.  They are supernatural beings who possibly could have been ancestors.  They take different forms and mediate between the Pueblo and the gods for rain.  As such they are often decorated with cloud and rain symbols.

Schaafsma, Polly

1994  The Prehistoric Kachina Cult and Its Origins as Suggested by Southwestern Rock Art.  In Kachinas in the Pueblo World, edited by Polly Schaafsma.  The University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

            In her essay, Schaafsma’s focus is kachinas – not only the typical doll-like images one normally thinks about, but also the images painted or pecked on rock.  Pueblo IV masks are displayed with ceremonial figures, animals, horned serpents and cloud designs.  There are many similarities between the previous Jornada Style rock art and the Mimbres’ pottery designs, although it is distinct enough to be considered its own style.There is more kachina imagery both pecked and painted found in the Rio Grande area than any other region.  There is a lot of variety and creativity – no two are alike.  “Proliferation of imagery suggests that rock art itself took on new and dynamic social dimensions and possibly even new ritual roles among the Pueblos beginning in the 14th century.”  The appearance of the masks could indicate a major ideological shift. Rock art became a public function of great importance.  Elements began to show up in or on villages, conspicuous land forms, shrines and other public places.             She goes on to describe the rock art masks found in the different Pueblo regions.  She also hypothesizes that the kachina cult was at one point not always a common element in the culture of the Pueblo because of a noticeable lack of kachina rock art found in certain regions.

Schaafsma, Polly and Keith Davis.

1988  Marks in place: Contemporary Responses to Rock Art.  The University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

            In her essay, Schaasfma discusses specific meanings of certain animals and designs and their relationship with rock art.  In the Pueblo culture, turkeys, for example, are associated with the earth, springs, streams, rain clouds, and death.  Eagles on the other hand, are associated with the powers of the sun, sky and clouds.  Ducks are regarded as messengers, searchers and the most knowledgeable of all creatures.  In Pueblo myths, ducks have been known to take on duck forms.  Mountain sheep are symbols of fertility and prosperity.  Water creatures, bear and mountain lions are powerful beings, and their images in rock art are considered to be powerful and beneficial.   Spirals can indicate wind, migration or water.  Crosses are considered to be stars or roadrunner tracks.  When all these things are found in rock art, there could possibly be a deeper meaning.  The images might be making a reference to the meanings of the symbols rather than just the image.  Also, many times these images are joined with other symbols, such as feathers, caps, and horns.  This is even greater evidence for the theory that images have deeper meanings.            She also discusses the various possible reasons for the rock art.  Some theories are supported by specific Pueblo examples and others do not, but it is still possible that they’re applicable.  Rock art could be symbolic (i.e. the animals) expressing different ideas and beliefs.  It could be sacred and an important aspect in certain rituals or shrines.  It could also indicate ownership or social groupings.

Schaafsma, Polly

1980  Indian Rock Art of the SouthwestUniversity of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

            In the introduction of her book, Polly Schaafsma describes the importance of rock art as a tool that enables people to “identify cultural relationships, patterns of communication, evidence of trade and other types of cultural contact.  Changes in style and content of rock art are often indications of the adoption of new ideologies and religious practices which in turn reflect other shifts within the cultural matrix.” (p. 1 and 3) In chapter 8, “Pueblo Rock Art After A.D. 1300,” she starts discussing the changes in the Pueblo culture – the changes in religion, painting methods and artistic symbolism.  There were also changes in their living accommodations.  They went from smaller villages of tight kinships to larger towns of multi-lineages – the “Rio Grande Style art suggests the appearance of socioreligious institutions capable of successfully integrating the multi-lineage villages that were forming at this time in the Pueblo region.” (p. 244)  She goes on to talk about the Rio Grande style rock art.  She discusses the various places it’s found, the differences in the rock art found there, the similarities.  She discusses the impact of western art on rock art (3D images, shading, and rock art of non-traditional subjects).  She also discusses some of the interpretation and function of rock art.

Schaafsma, Polly

1975  Rock Art in New Mexico.  The University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

            This book gave a very brief summary of what types of elements one would expect to find in the Rio Grande Style of rock art.  Common elements include: human figures, quadrupeds (sheep and deer), hunt scenes, humpbacked flute players, animal tracks, hand and feet prints, abstract designs (spirals, concentric circles and wavy lines), as well as, masks.  The images are primarily petroglyphs and are found from San Marcial in the south to Taos in the north. In all truth, I probably should have explored this source more.  There is probably quite a bit more information than what I found.

Silko, Leslie Marmon

1996  Interior and Exterior Landscapes: The Pueblo Migration Stories.  In Yellow Woman and a Beauty of the Spirit, pp. 25-47.  Touchstone Books, New York, 1996.

            Professor Kelley Hays-Gilpin found this quote for me:  "Pictographs and petroglyphs of constellations or elk or antelope draw their magic in part from the process wherein the focus of all prayer and concentration is upon the thing itself, which, in its turn, guides the hunter's hand. Connection with the spirit dimensions requires a figure or form that is all-inclusive. A lifelike rendering of an elk is too restrictive. Only the elk is itself. A realistic rendering of an elk would be only one particular elk anyway. The purpose of the hunt rituals and magic is to make contact with all the spirits of the elk."

Slifer, Dennis.

1998.  Signs of life: rock art of the Upper Rio GrandeAncient City Press, Santa Fe.

            This was another book recommended to me by Professor Hays-Gilpin.  However, I was unable to obtain it to read it.