Annotated Bibliography: New Mexico Pueblos
Sharon Mandigo, December 16, 2002
Eggan, F. and T.N. Pandey
1979 Zuni History, 1850-1970. In Southwest,
edited by Alfonso Ortiz, pp. 474-481. Handbook of North American Indians,
Vol.11, W.C. Sturtevant, general editor, Smithsonian Institution, Washington
1979 Pueblos: Introduction. In Southwest,
edited by Alfonso Ortiz. Handbook of North American Indians,
Volume 9, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, Smithsonian Institution,
This chapter of the encyclopedia gives an introduction to the Pueblo
Indians. It briefly discusses their settlements, agriculture, and economy.
It lists the various reservations in New Mexico
(17 in all). It discusses Pueblo
culture and history -- once again agriculture and trade, Spanish and American
influences on the Pueblo
recent events (since 1850). It briefly lists variations among the reservations.
Although for the most part unified, there are variations based on ecology, language
and social institutions. There are variations in location – western (mesa and
canyon land) pueblos and eastern (Rio Grande
. There is also a difference
in linguistics. There are four different and distinct mother tongues. There
are also divisions according to social organization (regarding kivas, kachina
cults, and lineages) that span across language divisions. It goes on to discuss
ceremonial and political organization, prehistory and the Pueblos
world view and future. There are other chapters after this that go into greater
depth and detail about the various groups of Pueblo Indians. The chapter “Pueblos
abandoned in Historic Times” by Albert H. Schroeder gives a summary of the “names,
locations and cultural traits of Pueblos
reported by the Spanish expeditions of the 1500s and some additional sources
for the 1600s.” The other chapters go into greater depth on specific groups
of Pueblo Indians. They are: Taos Pueblo, Santa Clara Pueblo, San Ildefonso Pueblo, Nambe Pueblo, Pojoaque Pueblo,
Tesuque Pueblo, Tigua Pueblo, Sandia Pueblo, Isleta Pueblo, Chochiti Pueblo,
Santo Domingo Pueblo, San Felipe Pueblo, Santa Ana Pueblo, Zia Pueblo, Jemez
Pueblo, Pecos Pueblo, Laguna Pueblo and Acoma Pueblo –
chapter with its own author.
Schaafsma, Polly and David Muench.
1995 Images in Stone. Brown Trout Publishers,
Inc., San Francisco.
In Images in Stone
, Schaafsma uses several different examples
beliefs as a means to
explore rock art – to attempt to clarify what the images are portraying. Kokopeli
for example are symbols of fertility, images dealing with warmth moisture, rain,
seeds, abundance and well-being. The mountain lion, bear, wolf, eagle, badger
and mole all have special directional significance and/or special curing capabilities.
In today’s Pueblo
society, the horned
serpent is in charge of all underground water sources and is able to cause earthquakes
or flooding if he is displeased with human activities. Shield and shield bearer
images often had celestial images, like the sun, stars or eagles, on or near
them. She also explains about kachinas. They are supernatural beings who possibly
could have been ancestors. They take different forms and mediate between the
and the gods for rain. As
such they are often decorated with cloud and rain symbols.
1994 The Prehistoric Kachina Cult and Its Origins as Suggested by Southwestern
Rock Art. In Kachinas in the Pueblo World, edited by Polly
Schaafsma. The University
of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
In her essay, Schaafsma’s focus is kachinas – not only the typical
doll-like images one normally thinks about, but also the images painted or pecked
on rock. Pueblo IV masks are displayed with ceremonial figures, animals, horned
serpents and cloud designs. There are many similarities between the previous
Jornada Style rock art and the Mimbres’ pottery designs, although it is distinct
enough to be considered its own style.There is more kachina imagery both pecked
and painted found in the Rio Grande
area than any other region. There is a lot of variety and creativity – no two
are alike. “Proliferation of imagery suggests that rock art itself took on
new and dynamic social dimensions and possibly even new ritual roles among the
beginning in the 14th
century.” The appearance of the masks could indicate a major ideological
shift. Rock art became a public function of great importance. Elements began
to show up in or on villages, conspicuous land forms, shrines and other public
places. She goes on to describe the rock art masks found in the
regions. She also
hypothesizes that the kachina cult was at one point not always a common element
in the culture of the Pueblo
of a noticeable lack of kachina rock art found in certain regions.
Schaafsma, Polly and Keith Davis.
1988 Marks in place: Contemporary Responses to Rock Art. The
University of New
Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
In her essay, Schaasfma discusses specific meanings of certain animals
and designs and their relationship with rock art. In the Pueblo
culture, turkeys, for example, are associated with the earth, springs, streams,
rain clouds, and death. Eagles on the other hand, are associated with the powers
of the sun, sky and clouds. Ducks are regarded as messengers, searchers and
the most knowledgeable of all creatures. In Pueblo
myths, ducks have been known to take on duck forms. Mountain sheep are symbols
of fertility and prosperity. Water creatures, bear and mountain lions are powerful
beings, and their images in rock art are considered to be powerful and beneficial.
Spirals can indicate wind, migration or water. Crosses are considered to be
stars or roadrunner tracks. When all these things are found in rock art, there
could possibly be a deeper meaning. The images might be making a reference
to the meanings of the symbols rather than just the image. Also, many times
these images are joined with other symbols, such as feathers, caps, and horns.
This is even greater evidence for the theory that images have deeper meanings.
She also discusses the various possible reasons for the rock art. Some theories
are supported by specific Pueblo
examples and others do not, but it is still possible that they’re applicable.
Rock art could be symbolic (i.e. the animals) expressing different ideas and
beliefs. It could be sacred and an important aspect in certain rituals or shrines.
It could also indicate ownership or social groupings.
1980 Indian Rock Art of the Southwest. University
of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
In the introduction of her book, Polly Schaafsma describes
the importance of rock art as a tool that enables people to “identify cultural
relationships, patterns of communication, evidence of trade and other types
of cultural contact. Changes in style and content of rock art are often indications
of the adoption of new ideologies and religious practices which in turn reflect
other shifts within the cultural matrix.” (p. 1 and 3) In chapter 8, “Pueblo
Rock Art After A.D. 1300,” she starts discussing the changes in the Pueblo
culture – the changes
in religion, painting methods and artistic symbolism. There were also changes
in their living accommodations. They went from smaller villages of tight kinships
to larger towns of multi-lineages – the “Rio Grande Style art suggests the appearance
of socioreligious institutions capable of successfully integrating the multi-lineage
villages that were forming at this time in the Pueblo region.” (p. 244)
She goes on to talk
about the Rio Grande
style rock art.
She discusses the various places it’s found, the differences in the rock art
found there, the similarities. She discusses the impact of western art on rock
art (3D images, shading, and rock art of non-traditional subjects). She also
discusses some of the interpretation and function of rock art.
1975 Rock Art in New Mexico.
The University of New
Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
This book gave a very brief summary of what types of elements one
would expect to find in the Rio Grande Style of rock art. Common elements include:
human figures, quadrupeds (sheep and deer), hunt scenes, humpbacked flute players,
animal tracks, hand and feet prints, abstract designs (spirals, concentric circles
and wavy lines), as well as, masks. The images are primarily petroglyphs and
are found from San Marcial in the south to Taos
in the north. In all truth, I probably should have explored this source more.
There is probably quite a bit more information than what I found.
Silko, Leslie Marmon
1996 Interior and Exterior Landscapes: The Pueblo
Migration Stories. In Yellow Woman and a Beauty of the Spirit, pp.
25-47. Touchstone Books, New York,
Professor Kelley Hays-Gilpin found this quote for me: "Pictographs
and petroglyphs of constellations or elk or antelope
draw their magic in part from the process wherein the focus of all prayer
and concentration is upon the thing itself, which, in its turn, guides the
hunter's hand. Connection with the spirit dimensions requires a figure or
form that is all-inclusive. A lifelike rendering of an elk is too restrictive.
Only the elk is itself. A realistic rendering of an elk would
be only one particular elk anyway. The purpose of the hunt rituals and magic
is to make contact with all the spirits of the elk."
1998. Signs of life: rock art of the Upper Rio Grande.
Press, Santa Fe.
This was another book recommended to
me by Professor Hays-Gilpin. However, I was unable to obtain it to read it.